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Psychology disorders

Between normality and abnormality there is a fine line that is based on personal opinions rather than having good reasons, where we may draw that line depends on how atypical, disturbing maladaptive and ingestible a persons behavior may be. Many people would agree that if someone who is too depressed to get out of bed for weeks at a time suffer a psychological disorder. Mental health workers label behavior psychological disordered when they judge it atypical, maladaptive and unjustifiable. In some cultures people behave in ways ( such as going out naked) that in other cultures would be against the law, resulting finally getting arrested.

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In other cultures war, even mass killing may be viewed as heroic. One person’s homicidal terrorist is another person’s freedom fighter. Standards of acceptability also vary over time, sex experts William Acton and William Masters and Virginia Johnson all knew that some women have orgasms during intercourse while others don’t. For Acton orgasms was the disorder resulting from over stimulation. For Masters and Johnson, lack of orgasm was the disorder resulting from inadequate stimulation Almost three decades ago the American Psychiatric association dropped homosexuality as a disorder because it was no longer believed to be connected with psychological problems.

Atypical and disrupting behaviors more likely to be considered disordered when judged as harmful. Clinicians define disorders as behaviors that are maladaptive as when smoker nicotine dependence produces physical damage. Even atypical behaviors such as the occasional despondency that many college students feel, may signal a psychological disorder if they become disabling. Maladaptive ness is a key element tin defining a disorder. Such behaviors must be distressing or put one at a risk of suffering death.

Abnormal behavior is most likely to be considered when others find it rationally unjustifiable. Stuart claimed to hear voices and people said he was dragged . Actress Shirley Mac Lourne could hear a crystal o n her neck and say the outer bubble of while light is watching you it is part of you and not be considered because people took her seriously. People in earlier times often should say the devil made him do it force by excorsing the demon, Two centuries ago mad people were sometimes caged or given therapies that would be accordingly appropriate for the demon. A disordered person might have been beaten, burned or castrated. The therapy might have included pulling teeth, removing length of intestines or even cauterizing the clitoris. Other people had their blood removed and replaced with the transfusions of animal blood.

Reformer such as Philippe Pinel in France insisted that madness was not demonic possessions but a sickness in response to severe stresses in humane conditions. For Pinel and other reformers treatment meant boosting patients morale by unchaining them, talking to them, and replacing brutally with gentleness, isolation with activity, and filth with fresh air and sun. Then it was later discovered that and infectious brain disease, syphilis, produced a disorder mind, people also came to believed in physical causes for disorders and to search for medical treatments. Today, this medical perspective is familiar to us in the medical movement. A mental illness needs to be diagnosed on the basis of its symptoms and cured through therapy that may included treatment in a psychiatric hospital.
The medical perspective has gained credibility according to recent discoveries. In the 1800s the assumption of the medical model- that psychological disorders are a sickness- the sick were unchained and the hospitals replaced hospital for people with mental illness.

In psychiatry and psychology, diagnostic classification aims to describe a disorder, to
Predict its future course, to imply appropriate treatment, and to stimulate research into its causes. To study a disorder we must first name it and also describe it. The diagnostic and statistical manual disorders (DSM-IV) is a form to classify psychological disorders. DSM-IV describes disorders and their prevalence without explaining their causes. DSM-IV groups some 230 psychological disorders and conditions into 17 major categories of mental disorder. If one psychiatrist or a psychologist diagnoses someone as having schizophrenia what are the chances that another mental health worker will independently give the same diagnosis? With the DSM-IV the chances are good.

Most clinicians believe that classification help in describing, treating, and researching the causes of psychological disorder. It is better to study roots of specific symptoms such as delusion or hallucinations. Once we label a person we view that person differently. Labels create preconceptions that can bias our perceptions and interpretations. David Rosenhan and seven of his friends and Stanford University colleagues went to mental hospital admissions offices, complaining of hearing voices that were saying empty, hollow, and thud. Besides the complaint and giving false names and occupations they answer all questions. All eight were diagnosed mentally ill. Is not surprising that these people were misdiagnosed. One psychiatrist noted, if someone swallowed blood went to an emergency room and spat it up, would we fault the doctor for diagnosing a bleeding ulcer? What followed the diagnosis was more surprising. After admissions the patients didn’t have further symptoms. However the clinicians were able to discover the causes of their disorders after analyzing their quite normal life stories. One person said to be reacting to mix emotions about his parents. Before them being release an average released an average of 19 days later the patients normal behavior such as taking notes were often misinterpreted as symptoms. Other studies confirm that labels affect how we see one another. Ellen Langer and her colleagues rate an interviewee they thought was either normal or out of their ordinary . All raters watch the identical video tapes. Those who watched unlabeled interviewees seen them as normal and those who watched supposed patients perceived them as different from most people. Therapist who thought they were evaluating a psychiatric patient saw the interview frightened of his own aggressive impulsive. A Label can serve useful purpose. Labels not only bias perceptions, they can also change reality. When teachers are told certain students are gifted, when students expect someone to be hostile, or when interviewers check to see whether someone is extraverted they may act in ways that may elicit the behavior expected. Some one who has led to think you are nasty may treat you coldly, provoking you to respond as nasty person would. Labels can also serve as self-fulfilling prophecies.

Anxiety is a part of life. When speaking in front of a class, when waiting to play a big game any one of us might feel anxious. At one time we may have enough anxiety that we fail to make eye contact or we may avoid talking to someone. If this becomes persistent we may have an anxiety disorder that is marked by distress, persistent anxiety or maladaptive behavior that reduces anxiety .

Tom is a 27 year old electrician who seeks help complaining of dizziness, sweating palms, heart palpitations, and ringing in his ears. H sometimes finds himself shaking. He hides his symptoms from his family and co-workers. He occasionally has to leave work. His family doctor and neurologist can find no physical problem. Tom’s unfocused, out of control and negative feeling suggest a anxiety disorder. The sufferers are continually tense, worried about bad things that might happen, and experience all symptoms of autonomic nervous system arousal like raising heart, stomach butterflies sleeplessness. The tension may leak out through the brows, twitching eyelids or fidgeting. One of the worst characteristics of a anxiety disorder is that the person cannot identify therefore cannot avoid the cause of the persistence unpleasant symptom.

Some 1 in 75 people with panic disorder know, anxiety may at times turn into a panic attack a minute of fear that something horrible is about to happen to them. Heart palpitations, shortness of breath, choking sensations trembling, or dizziness may accompany a panic. The experience can be so frightening that the sufferer often comes to fear itself and to avoid situations where panic has struck. Agoraphobia is fear or avoidance of situations in which escapes of help might no be available when panic may strike. Given such fear people may avoid being outside home in a crowd or even to travel in a plane or train on a elevator.

Phobia focus anxiety on some specific object, activity or situation. Phobias are irrational fears that disrupt behavior are common psychological disorder that people often accept and live with. Marilyn a 28 year old homemaker fears thunderstorms that she feels anxious as a weather forecaster mentions possible storms later that week. If her husband is away and a storm is forecast she sometimes stays with a close relative during a storm. She hides from windows and avoids seeing lightning otherwise she is healthy and happy.

Other People suffer from irrational fears or specific animals, insects as heights blood and tunnels. One can hide during a thunderstorm or avoid high places. With a social phobia an intense fear by others, the anxious person may avoid speaking up, eating out, or going to parties, sweat, tremble or have diarrhea when doing so. Phobias appear at a younger age often by the early teens.

Freud assumed that at the beginning in childhood intolerable impulses, ideas, and feelings get repressed, that this submerged mental energy sometimes produces symptoms such as anxiety. Now Psychologists have turned away from Freud to two other perspectives, learning and biological. Researchers have link general anxiety with conditioning of fear.

In the laboratory, they have created chronically anxious rats by giving them unpredictable electric shocks. When experimental shocks becomes predictable when preceded by particular conditioned stimulus and they relax in its absence. So it can happen with the human fears.

Conditioned fears may remain long after we have forgotten the experiences that produced them. Some fears arise from stimulus generalization. For example a person who fears heights after a fall may be afraid of airplanes without ever having flown.

Avoiding the feared situation reduces anxiety. Compulsive behaviors also reduce anxiety, If washing your hands or anything else relieves your feelings of unease, you will likely wash your hands or anything else again when the feeling returns. Someone could also learn fear through observational learning- by observing others fears. Human parents could also transmit their fears to their children.
Compulsive acts often exaggerate behavior that relates to our survival. When grooming becomes hair pulling and washing up becomes ritual hand washing. Humans seem to be biologically prepared to fear dangers faced our ancestors. Most phobias focus on objects such as spiders, snakes, closed spaces, heights, and storms. Many of our fears may also have an evolutionary explanation. For example fear of flying may co me from our biological past, that predisposes us to fear confinement and heights. How ever evolution does not prepare us to learn fear of bombs dropping from the sky. Some people are genetically predisposed to particular fears and high anxiety. Identical twins often develop similar phobias in some cases even when raised separately. A pair of identical female twins independently developed claustrophobia. They also became so fearful of water that they would move back from the ocean, only up to the knees. In humans vulnerability to anxiety disorders rises when the relative is an identical twin. Generalized anxiety disorders, panic and even obsession and compulsions are biologically measurable as an arousal of the brain areas involved in impulsive control. PET scans of person with obsessive -compulsive disorder reveal unusually high activity in an area of the eyes and deep in the brain.

Genetically influenced abnormalities in the brain structure and biochemistry contribute to a number of disorder. Two of the most troubling, depression- is the common cold of psychological disorders. and schizophrenia- is a psychotic disorder in which a person loses contact either with reality, experiencing grossly irrational ideas or distorted perceptions-are often treated medically. Schizophrenia occurs during adolescence and young adulthood. It affects males and females about equally. Schizophrenia is a split from reality that shows itself in disorganized thinking disrupt perceptions and inappropriate emotions and actions.

Maxine a young women whose thoughts spill out in no logical order. Susan Sheehan observed Maxine saying out laud to no one. Maxine said “This morning I was at Hillside (Hospital), I was making a movie. I was surrounded by movie stars. The x-rays technician was Peter Lawford. The security guard was Don Knotts. That Indian in building 40 was Lou Costello. I’m Mary Poppins. Is this room painted blue to get me upset? My grandmother died four weeks after my eighteenth birthday”. As we can see this patient is having delusions- false beliefs that may accompany psychotic disorders-. Many psychologists believe disorganized thoughts result from a breakdown in a certain attention. People that have schizophrenia have impaired attention.

A person with schizophrenia may see things that aren’t there. The person may hear voices that make insulting statements or give orders. People could also see, feel, taste, or smell things that are nonexistent. The emotions of schizophrenia are often inappropriate to situations. People could laugh after remembering something bad that happened to them and vise versa. People with schizophrenia live in a private world. Schizophrenia with positive symptoms are disorganized and mislead in their talk or are disposed to inappropriate laughter. Those with negative symptoms have a toneless voices, not many face expressions. Since Schizophrenia is more than one disorder there could be more than one cause. Schizophrenia is one of the most disorder that has being researched. New studies shows that schizophrenia is linked with brain abnormalities and genetic predisposition.

One of the other most controversial disorders are the dissociative disorders where conscious awareness is said to become separated from previous memories, thoughts and feelings. This happens when a situation becomes to stressful and people are said to separate themselves from it. Then, their conscious awareness becomes separated from painful memories, thoughts and feelings. Although some symptoms of dissociation are not so rare, many people may have a sense of being unreal, of being separated from one’s body, of watching themselves in a movie. Facing a trauma like a detachment may actually protect a person from being overwhelmed by emotion. However, only when such experiences are severe they suggest a dissociative disorder.

Amnesia, the failure to recall events, can be caused by head injuries or alcoholic intoxication. Psychologists believe, that dissociative amnesia usually begins as a response to intolerable psychological stress. An 18-year old victim was rescued by the Cost Guard and brought to hospital. He knew he had gone sailing with friends and that he could not recall what had happened to his friends and that he was a college student, but he said he could not recall what had happened to his friends. He also kept forgetting he was in a hospital and each reminder surprised him. Later, he was aided by a drug that relaxed him, he then formed a memory.

This case illustrates, the forgetfulness of amnesia. The victim seem to forget what is intolerable painful. Those with amnesia may be somewhat disoriented and may forget who they are, but they will remember how to drive, count and talk. Typically amnesia goes away as abruptly as it began and rarely recurs.

How many times have we felt depressed and what about other? Many times well, mood disorders come in two principal forms. One major expressive disorder- where someone experiences extends hopelessness and abnormal until eventually recovering to normality. Two bipolar disorder or manic depressive disorder- when a person alternates between depression, overexcited and hyperactive state.
You may feel discourage about your future, dissatisfied with your life, or isolated from others. You may feel lack of energy unable to concentrate, eat or sleep normal or you might even wonder if you would be better off dead. If so you are not alone, depression is really common in psychological disorders. Depression is the number one thing why people seek mental health services. Depression is appropriate response to sad events, such as the lost of someone meaningful to you. Depression slows us down it avoids attracting predators, and it also calls support.

Bipolar disorders is a mood disorder in which the person alternates between the hopelessness and lethargy ( abnormal ) of depression and the overexcited state of mania. During this phase people are over talkative, overactive, small need for sleep, shows fewer sexual restraint. Speech could be loud and hard to be interrupted. Creative professionals such as architects, designers, and journalists are less vulnerable to bipolar disorders than are those who rely o n emotional expression people like poets, novelists, and entertainments. Bipolar disorder is less common one percent of the population get it. Both males and females can get this disorder. Depressed people are unmotivated. They tend to be really negative in bad situations. Women are more vulnerable to major depression than men. Althought therapy can speed up the recovery of depression, people that suffer depression can return normal without professional help.

Depression is a whole body disorder, involving genetic predisposition, biochemical imbalances, melancholy and negative thoughts. The risk of major depression and bipolar disorder increases if you have a parent who became depressed before the age of thirty. If one identical is diagnose as suffering major depressive disorder the chances are about 1 in 2 that at some time in the other twin. If one identical twin has a bipolar disorder the chances are seven in ten than the other twin will at some point be diagnosed.

Genes act by directing event that at the end influence behavior, neurotransmitters sends signal between nerve cells. A neurotransmitter called norepinephrine that increases arousal and pushes up mood. Serotonin another neurotransmitter also appears scarce during depression. Physical exercise like jogging reduce depression.

Although psychological disorders are still really controversial among people therapies have help a lot. We have come to understand how anxiety disorders, schizophrenia and dissociative disorders affect people some in different ways but however everyday we come closer to new medical help on avoiding this disorders.

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